Tag Archives: Apache Tomcat

cento tomcat

CentOS Tomcat server installation is easy!

CentOS Tomcat installation

CentOS Tomcat

centos tomcat

“Apache Tomcat is an open source software implementation of the Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages technologies. The Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages specifications are developed under the Java Community Process.” from Tomcat homepage.

 

Prerequisities

  • CentOS 6.x (I haven’t tested this on older versions but it should probably work as well) 

Check your Java installation

before we’ll continue the installation of Tomcat, the JDK (Java Development Kit) should be installed on your CentOS machine. to check for Java support use the command:

java -version

javanotfound

if bash returns ‘command not found‘ then continue to the next step and install the JDK, else skip the step and continue to Tomcat server installation.

 

Install Java Development Kit (JDK)

To install the jdk we have 2 options:

  1. Install OpenJDK – Using YUM.
  2. Install Oracle JDK – Install manually.

I’ll explore both:

Option 1: Install Open-JDK using YUM

For beginners and testing purposes you should go with this option.

Why should I use the Oracle JDK over the OpenJDK, or vice-versa? [closed]

The command to install JDK using YUM is very simple:

yum install java

yuminstall java

  • Note: use sudo if you are not logged-in with root.
  • the command will install the latest jdk (1.7 as for this date). If you want to install older version use the full name (search using: $ yum search jdk)yum-search-jdk
    You can see you can install the 1.6 version by typing: yum install java-1.6.0

Check you have installed it right:

javafound

 

Option 2: Install JDK manually

Download your required JDK here.

Note: I can’t give you an WGET command to download, because you need to Accept License Agreement before downloading any file.

You can download and install using the RPM or the tar.gz (both with x86 or x64) on your CentOS machine:

downloadjava

 

 

In case of our CentOS we can download and install the .rpm file or the .tar.gz file.

RPM can be installed ONLY by the root.
TAR.GZ can be installed be any user on the computer.

 

Option A: Install using .rpm

make sure to uninstall older installations (if any):

rpm –e <package name>

To install the jdk using the downloaded rpm use the rpm command:

rpm –ivh jdk-7u45-linux-x64.rpm

If you just want to upgrade a package you’ve already installed use the -Uvh parameter.

rpm –Uvh jdk-7u45-linux-x64.rpm

Delete the .rpm file if you want to save disk space.

Read more about installation of Oracle Java on Centos here on ItekBlog

 

Use alternatives :

alternatives –install /usr/bin/java java /usr/java/latest/jre/bin/java 20000
alternatives –install /usr/bin/javaws javaws /usr/java/latest/jre/bin/javaws 20000

alternatives

and config your default jdk (if you have more then one) using:

using:

alternatives –config java

alternatives-config

 

Test your environment

Just as in the first step: type java -version to see if your have jdk installed.

oraclejavaversion

 

Option B: Install using tar.gz

The advantage of tar.gz installation of the JDK is that we can able to install multiple version of java if required.

The archive can be installed by anyone (not only root users), in any location that you can write to. However, only the root user can install the JDK into the system location.

You need to unpack the .tar.gz file (using tar -xzf) into the  the location where you would like the JDK to be installed.

Unpack the tarball and install the jdk:

tar zxvf jdk-7u<version>-linux-i586.tar.gz

Delete the .tar.gz file if you want to save disk space.

 

Use alternatives :

alternatives –install /usr/bin/java java /path/to/jdk1.7.0_45/bin/java 2
alternatives –config java

read more about installation of jdk in the oracle documentation.

for extended installation tutorial read this post by adam in this blog.

 

JDK 1.6 vs JDK 1.7

read more on What is the difference between jdk 1.6 and 1.7 ?

 

Environment Variables

1
JAVA_HOME

 is a 

1
environment

 variable (in Unix terminologies), or a PATH variable (in Windows terminology) you need to create to point to where Java is installed. ($JAVA_HOME/bin/java should execute the Java runtime).

Why doesn’t the Java SDK installer set JAVA_HOME?

To set it for your current session type at bash:

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.7.0_05
export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin

To set the JAVA_HOME permanently we need to add the commands to the ~/.bash_profile file of the user.
We can also add it /etc/profile and then source it to give to all users.

 

Test Environment Variables

use the echo command to check you’ve configured the variables:

echo $JAVA_HOME
echo $PATH

echovars

 

Installing Tomcat

After we have java installed and tested we can continue to the installation of the Tomcat server.

Download Tomcat

Since Apache Tomcat is distributed as binaries, all you have to do is to download it and start it.

Download apache-tomcat-x.x.xx.tar.gz (latest version or any) from Apache Tomcat Homepage

I’ll go with the tomcat 8 – tar.gz package.

centos tomcat

centos tomcat

and using command:

cd /usr/share
wget http://apache.spd.co.il/tomcat/tomcat-8/v8.0.0-RC10/bin/apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10.tar.gz

tomcat-wget

verify and extract the download using::

md5sum apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10.tar.gz
tar xvzf apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10.tar.gz

and I have a /usr/share/apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10 folder now.

 

Test Tomcat server

Tomcat by default start on port 8080 you can start the server now by typing at bash:

cd apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10
./bin/startup.sh

tomcat-start

 

Now Access the tomcat by connecting your server with a web browser on port 8080.

http://localhost:8080

tomcat

If you cannot access the above Tomcat page, make sure to stop iptables (since CentOS has iptables on by default set to block the Tomcat’s default listening port 8080).

service iptables stop

to permanently disable iptables (NOT RECOMMENDED AT ALL) use:

chkconfig iptables off

Change the Tomcat server port

Locate server.xml in {Tomcat installation folder}/conf/ which is at /usr/share/apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10/conf in our case

Find the following:

 <!-- Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8180 -->
    <Connector port="8080" maxHttpHeaderSize="8192"
               maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="25" maxSpareThreads="75"
               enableLookups="false" redirectPort="8443" acceptCount="100"
               connectionTimeout="20000" disableUploadTimeout="true" />

and change the 8080 port to your required port.

 

Start on boot

To start the tomcat service on system boot create the file /etc/init.d/tomcat8 (I am using vi /etc/init.d/tomcat8) and fill it with:

#!/bin/bash 
# description: Tomcat Start Stop Restart 
# processname: tomcat 
# chkconfig: 234 20 80 
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/jdk1.7.0_05 
export JAVA_HOME 
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$PATH 
export PATH 
CATALINA_HOME=/usr/share/apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10
 
case $1 in 
start) 
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh 
;; 
stop) 
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh 
;; 
restart) 
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/shutdown.sh 
sh $CATALINA_HOME/bin/startup.sh 
;; 
esac 
exit 0

Now set the permissions on the file and the catalina.sh file:

chmod a+x /etc/init.d/tomcat8
chmod a+x /usr/share/apache-tomcat-8.0.0-RC10/bin/catalina.sh

to start/stop/restart the service use:

service tomcat8 start
service tomcat8 restart
service tomcat8 stop

to start the service on boot use:

chkconfig --add tomcat8
chkconfig tomcat8 on

to disable it later you can use off instead of on:

chkconfig tomcat8 off

 

 

That’s it! you have your CentOS Tomcat server working and runing… 

Development Specialist, Artist and Activist
Personal Website
how to speed website

How to speed up website load time

How to speed up website load time

How to speed up website load time is important question for those that performance matters to them.

Nobody Likes a Slow Website!

 

Overview

How to speed up website?

Website optimization is a required step for production, and when is automated when possible correctly it can help you deliver your website as fastest as possible without compromising on development comfortability and code readability.

 

Test your website load time speed

How to speed up website question could be answered for your case better if you’ll use a website speed test tools. There several good websites load time speed tests available online for free. check out pingdom website speed test, Google PageSpeed tools. this are very good tools which also gives you important and valuable information and tips to speed up your website.

 

pingdom

You can also check: WebPagetest, GTmetrix or PageScoring Website Speed Test.

Some of them rates your website and/or explain what could be done to make your site faster. you can learn also a lot from loading time graphs.collect information from all the above to optimize your website to maximum.

  • If it takes more then 10 seconds for your website to load. you are doing a very bad job optimizing your website (if at all).
  • If your page load time takes several seconds then you’re ok (but you can do better then that!).
  • if your page load time takes up to two seconds then your site is in very good shape!
  • if your page load time takes less then a second then your site is sooooo fast!! and you are doing a excellent job!

if your score is bad.. continue reading How to speed up website

 

How to speed up website load time

So, how to speed up your website load time?

You can do that using several tweaks.. one at a time…

 

1. learn the waterfall. where are your bottom neck ?

Use the mentioned websites speed test graphs to learn what are the slowest parts of your website and start with them. does the problem is with your webserver or maybe the infrastructure?

How to speed up website ? Does your static files load time is the problem?

And maybe it is the dns? processing request? loading the images? loading the scripts? maybe you have bad requests?

This extreme powerfull tool will help you learn your weaks and strongs.

how to speed website

how to speed website

2. Minimize redirects

If your website on load check if it’s mobile or not, then it redirect to another page when checks the language and then redirects to another page who check the cookies and then redirect… well you’ve got the idea. Bad design pattern!

Minimize redirects!

 

3. Browser caching

Set up your server to return Expire and Cache-Control headers with static files. Setup you expire date to be within week or more is a very good timeframe (depend on how frequently you update your website static files you can setup the expire date as required).

 

4. use CDN (if possible)

Content Delivery Network (CDN) can be an important tool in achieving decent page load and web application speeds. Providers such as AkamaiEdgeCast, Amazon (CloudFront), Rackspace (CloudFiles), Google (PageSpeed) and Microsoft (Azure CDN) are providing the means to distribute your content to locations geographically closer to your customers/users, which improves the responsiveness of the application or website.

 

5. put cache server between your server and your client when possible

Although using a CDN can help with page load speeds, a CDN is not always the best solution in terms of Cost–benefit.

when configuring a cache server before your website server, and no matter if it’s apache, tomcat, gunicorn or any other html generator you can boost up clients page load dramatically.

 

caching the compiled html pages is very important speed tweak. if you have any static and/or low-rate updated pages with no problem if some users will not see the lastest updates of the html when it changes (until cache reloads).. check varnish-cache or squid-cache or nginx (with HttpProxy module) or Apache with mod_proxy.

You should think of your webapp as in several seperate layers. where one layer could answering html requests and other serving your static files. always try to find the suitable tool for this mission in terms of speed (and taste). consider serving your static files (those not on CDN) using the fastest web server for static files you can find.

 

6. Minify

A very important stage is to minify data.

  • Minify CSS files for production! there are many simple gui or command tools to do that..
    if you are using LESS, SASS or other, Never compile on client side! compiler only on server side and setup your compiler to minify results.
  • Minify your JS files. if possible, insert them as scripts into the html, or better, minify and join them inside when processing the html (But don’t forget to use Cache server!).
    If you’re using Coffee-script and template engine it should be easier as you can compile the ,coffee file to minified version and include it within your template.
  • Minify HTML. if you have static html files use command or gui tool. if you have more advanced server like python or ruby – minify them before sumbit.
  • If your template engine support preprocessors. use them to minify HTML (and everything other you can). if not – use a library (if possible).

 

7. GZip

Configure you webserver (nginx, apache,etc)  to GZip response.

Set the Vary header (Vary: Accept-Encoding header) correctly for Internet Explorer.

 

8. Caching data

If you have data you can cache in memory for your application server – DO IT.

Use Redis, memcached or any other tool you find is suitable.

It can be small data (like the number of your followers you’ve just counted from facebook, twitter and youtube JSON calls) or the Entire processed HTML.

Put expire time for each resource on your store as needed.

 

 

How to speed up website

‘ How to speed up website ‘ tutorial ends here.

hope you’ll have fun optimizing your website and now you now few important tips on How to speed up website

Using those steps I’ve managed to reduced my website load time from several seconds to only 1-2 seconds (and sometimes less then second). It’s was worth the effort!!

 

Good day (or night),

Development Specialist, Artist and Activist
Personal Website